The article publishes coins of Tyra (Fig. I, №№ 1-4), Nikonion (Fig. I, № 5) and Olbia (Fig. II, №№ 6-11) with brief comments explaining their characteristics and time of issue. Among them are rare variants: coins of Tyra (№№ 2-4), Nikonion (№ 5), Olbia (№№ 7, 10 , 11) and unique copy – «heavy» mutual-relief dolphin (№ 6, 93 mm).
The paper is devoted to study of three maps on which the placename Odessus is present. The maps were printed in the editions of the 16th – 17th centuries. The first map (1570) by an unknown author was put together with ancient work – Arrian’ Periplus and was published in Genoa. The second one (1590) belongs to Abraham Ortelius, Flemish cartographer, and the third map is taken from the Lyons edition of the “Dictionary of Roman antiquities” (published during 1694-1699). The researcher concludes that the ancient name (in particular, Odessus) did not cease to exist on the maps immediately, but coexisted for some time with medieval placenames. Because as it is known from the documents, yarliqs and the memories of travelers there was Kachibey-port and castle on the area of the modern Odessa.
KEYWORDS: Odesa, Odessus, Kachibey, Podolia, the Northen Black Sea Region, historical geography, maps.
Jaroslav Bodzek, Janusz Czop (Cracow). The exhibition «Treasures from the Black Sea coast – Gold, Sculpture and Pottery from the Archaeological museum in Odesa» in the National museum in Cracow and the protection of cultural heritage of North Pontic area.
The activity of conservation of the archeological sites and the museum collections, their restoration and popularization remain an important aim in the saving of the cultural and historical heritage of the nations. The museums, as centers of collection, keeping and popularization of the historical artefacts, play significant part in this process. The exhibition «Treasures from the Black Sea coast – Gold, Sculpture and Pottery from the Archaeological museum in Odesa», held in Cracow in 2006, had for an object not only to demonstrate the exhibit of the Archaeological museum in Odesa, but also to carry out the restoration of the items if it were necessary. The restorers of the National museum in Cracow have perfectly managed this task. Within the frames of their work, they promoted the preservation of the cultural heritage of Ukraine. The bilingual catalogue in Polish and English, issued for the exhibition, acquainted not only the Polish audience, but also the other countries, with the museum collections of the Archaeological museum in Odesa, one of the oldest and largest Archaeological museum in Ukraine, which had 190th Anniversary in 2015.
This article focuses the light on the question of the quality decrease of solidi of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania of 1618-1619 years of mint. The elemental composition of the metal shows the uniformity of micro elements of the alloy and almost constant fineness of silver in the coins of both years of mint. That’s why the reason of the visual decrease of the quality of these coins should be searched in other phase of their production, such as making the coins, their hardening, conditions of use, etc.
The article serves the preliminary results of the studies of ritual ash bunker of the end of the 6th – the first quarter of 5th centuries BC from the excavations of settlement of Viktorovka-I in 2013-2014. The base of the ash bunker is a mainland buried in a clay pit with lots of descents, decorated in the form of steps. The pit was dug by the Greeks in the place of the burial complex of the bronze age that treats its uniqueness among other similar monuments. In the study of the pit it was recorded seven graves, undisturbed in the ancient time.
The publication examines the design features of the pit and the structure of the ash bunker, describes the investigated burials, and analyzed material from the filling of the complex.
The electrum coin of Cyzicus was found during the excavation in Olbia (sector R-25). It is a hecte (1/6 stater) of Phocaean monetary system. After H. von Fritze classification it belongs to group I, circa 600–550 BC. It is important to underline, that all Cyzicenes previously found in Olbia belong to a later group II (550-480 BC). The fact of findings of this coin seems to be very significant. There was uncovered new (Southern) temenos with the temple of Aphrodite as a result of recent studies at the southern part of Olbia. It’s dating – the last quarter / end of 6th cent. BC. It is probable that the Cyzicus coin could be brought to the temenos as votiv offering.
The article is devoted to the localization of Kankit which was mentioned in the Olbian Decree in honour of Protogenes (IOSPE,I2, № 32)
The article analyzes the importance of studies by P.O.Karyshkovsky on electrum coins of Cyzicus. There are two directions in the research of the issue. The first priority is the role of these coins in money circulation of the Northern Black Sea Coast, primarily Olbia; and the second is the consideration of some features of Cyzicus electrum coinage (typology, metrology, the composition of the metal). Main P.O.Karyshkovsky’s views on these issues are given in two articles on the relative value of the precious metals in Olbia and in the Bosporus, as well as in the monograph (1988).
The article raises the problem of using patterns in red-figure vase painting. The analysis of “Kerch” style pelikes from the famous collections is made that allows to put the question of their painting with the patterns usage. Most of all, it is evident in the red-ceramic products of the IV c. BC. During that period, the Amazons plot is one of the most common on wares from the Northern Black Sea region, namely on the territory of steppe and forest steppe. Junior masters, and then second-rate craftshops and craftsmen copied and processed for their products the plots of the great masters creations. From the uniqueness the plot is transformed to a pattern. Detailed analysis is carried out on pelikes of the workshop called the “Master” of the “wounded Amazon”, with the typical plot and identical figures of warriors and Amazons moving from vessel to vessel.
Painted decoration of pottery from cultural complex Trypillia-Cucuteni is full of different symbols, including images of various animals. They are embodied in the decoration of vessels. This animals are goats, dogs, deers, “bovines”, bulls and cows. Images of snakes also were very popular. Some of animals, like dog, goat, bulls, cows connected with the sacrifices, which are known from excavations. Obviously, they also reflecting the symbolic signs, special kind of “zoomorphic code”. Compositions with the images of animals can be considered as a certain symbolic nonverbal narrative that contains fragments of myths of ancient farmers.
Two caricature characters (Figs 1-2) are represented among finds from excavations in Belozerskoe settlement found in pits of the early building period (from the early fourth century BC to the first decades of the last quarter of the same century). There are hanging terracotta figurine 7 cm of height, probably an amulet, and an intact insertion (size: 2.2×1.75×0.1/0.7 cm) to pendant or, less possible, to ring, made of glass pasta. In both cases it is a grotesque which depicts a fat naked crone with a head gear. Iconographic peculiarities of this type are stuck-out tongue, round bulging eyes, stressed belly folds and heavy breast. No doubt it may be supposed for image of Baubo of Egyptian provenance (LIMK 1986 – 1: 88-89; – 2: 67-68).
We see grotesque figures to be familiar to the people of rustic settlements of Olbia in the fourth century BC and they understood the sense whatever they may have thought about them. It is very attractive to link these finds with home worship of Demeter. Another set of ideas about Baubo joins this image with cult of Dionysus. Of course, we may have doubts about the understanding of Orphic ideas and Eleusinian difficulties by this population, they approximately perceived to sense of the visions of Baubô, but it is worth stressing that rustic people had a common idea of such personages.
The article deals with the civic values of classical Athens as components of formation of the ideal citizen image.
Keywords: civic values, polis, isonomia, justice, obeisance for the gods and ancestors.
The clay figurines of «Scythian horsemen» which were found in Lower Egypt, at Memphis, Busiris (Tell-Basta), and Buto (Tell el-Fara’in) are discussed in the paper. Their appearance could be explained by the “Second Persian conquest” of Egypt by Arthaxerxes III (343–332 B.C.) The contingent of Iranophone nomadic horsemen could take part in the invasion and seemed to become the image of “Asiatic foreigners/enemies” in Egyptian representations. The figurines might have been used in the damnation rituals. The areas of archeological finds of the terracotta are concurring with the places, where battles and destruction of 343–342 B.C. were fixed.
Multi-channel kilns usually considered as one of the signs of high-developed professional production of ceramics. The most ancient kilns of this type were recorded on. Crete in the late Bronze Age palace, dated near 11th century BC. Later they are well known at Mediterranean until the Roman period. However, in 2013, these facilities have been discovered in the settlements Trypillia culture in Ukraine. In 2014 the remains of such kiln were explored at Nebelivka site, dated near 4000-3900 BC. Probably such kilns were invented in times, when painted Cucuteni pottery appeared at the second half of V Mill. BC.
The article analyzes few findings from the fortified settlement Artesian (Kerch Peninsula) and its immediate vicinity that enable to reconstruct some poorly studied periods of medieval history. Amphora and silver fibula are the earliest of these findings. They belong to the early Byzantine period and date back to 6–7th centuries. The next group of finds include an arrowhead and a coin of the emperor John Tzimiskes. They date back to the second half of the 10–13th centuries. During this period the steppes of Kerch peninsula were controlled by the Pechenegs and the Cumans. Other, more numerous finds date back to 14–18th centuries. Various ceramics dominate among them. An arrowhead, brass button and tobacco pipes also belong to that group. Mostly they are connected with the late medieval settlement, the remains of which can be traced in the northern part of the fortified settlement.
The author of this article tries to trace the influence of the Board of strategoi on the appointment reform of the archons and to determine the year of Themistocles στρατηγία from 489 to 481/0 BC. It’s found that the number of political figures in Athens was interested in the reform of archons, because in addition to the honorary title it gave no political influence. Thus in the Council of the Areopagus began to get random persons that eventually weakened this institution and prepared the cooperation between areopagitas and loyal to them politicians, occupying the position of strategos.
The article examines the main sources of formation of Museum antiquities collection: private collections, casual finds, excavations of the ancient settlement of Olvia and its necropolis in the 1920s. It also examines the current state of the collection and its practical use in Museum work.
This publication introduces a new scientific information on archaeological research of Boris Grakov – famous archaeologist, scythianologist. His report on archaeological survey of the Northern coast of the Azov Sea in the 1950-1951 is kept in the scientific archive of the Institute of Archaeology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
New early Trypillian settlement Mechyslavka was found in 2015. Surface material is represented by stone manos and metatas, flint tools (including projectiles), figurines, Copper items. There was a notable quantity of potsherds, mostly ornamented.
The article deals with the research works of Vladimir Sichynsky on the architecture of the Crimea. It is shown that the scholar focused on the monuments of Chersonesos and Kerch. Among architectural monuments of Chersonesos the special attention was given to the rotunda 600 AD, so called baptistery. His other research which was devoted to Chersonesos architecture, gave a wide panorama of city building, especially its Christian monuments. The scholar researched in details 8th century church of John the Baptist in Kerch. It is important that he connected the Crimean monuments with the genesis of Ukrainian architecture. Thus V. Sichynsky argued that Ukrainian culture belonged to the circle of the Mediterranean cultures.
Keywords: Vladimir Sichynsky architecture studies, the Crimea, Chersonesos Kerch
In May 2015 on the left bank of the river Ingul in the North east side of the peninsula of Mykolaiv was studied on its own estate the ancient burial that was partially destroyed during the construction. Supporting equipment and the type of burial indicate that it was left by carriers of Cherniahivs’ka culture and dates back to the end of 3rd – beginning 4th BC.
The article deals with the problem of how epigraphic sources help us to perform the verification of the information provided by the narrative about the mission of Germanicus to the East (18-19 CE), and the Roman-Parthian relations in this period. The author comes to the conclusion, that the events in Armenia are described quite similarly by both types of sources, while Germanicus’ conflict with Piso was quite unusual and dangerous for the Roman foreign policy.
In the article of hand we present some conclusions, based on epigraphic plates, removed from Belgorod Fortress walls and other Moldovan numismatic and sphragistic sources of the 15th century.
The material discussed here provides a rare opportunity to see the continuity of ethno-geographic ideas. The authors demonstrate how the ancient perception of Maeotis (the Sea of Azov) as a marshy water basin gives birth to a Byzantine-Gothic representation of it as a swamp with a specific name Hele (ἕλη), which, in a strange junction with a Latin designation of a swamp (paludes), gives as a result the Old Norse hydronym Ellipaltar (used by the anonymous Icelandic author of the collection of the Kings’ sagas “Fagrskinna”, ca. 1220) – a bilingual composite name with a tautological meaning of its both parts.
Keywords: continuity of ethno-geographic ideas, hydronyms, the Sea of Azov, Greeks, Romans, Goths, Scandinavians, Varangians
The article is devoted to the discovery of hematite scarab amulet on the coast of Odessa. It dates back to 7–4th centuries BC and is interpreted as guardian-talisman of the cult of Apollo Physician.
A separate group of the Byzantine themes researchers at Kharkiv University included the Faculty of Law professors who studied the problems on law history of Byzantium and couched such themes in their lectures. Byzantine material was presented in the disciplines on the history of Russian law, Roman law, History of the Slavic laws and Church law. The main personalities of lawyers in Kharkiv University who studied the main problems on Byzantine, Russian and Church Law were M. Ostroumov, M. Maximeyko, O. Zagorovsky, I. Sobestiansky.
Keywords: Kharkiv University, historiography, Byzantine studies, Law studies.
Border trade cities in 4-9thcenturies restricted the transfer of foreigners to the territory of the Byzantine Empire and leaving citizens abroad. Policy restrictions of foreign trade by a number of specialized border towns provided safety of trade exchange between the subjects of the Empire and foreigners, prevented the export of prohibited goods,provided conditions,which excluded the possibility of espionage and subversive activities by foreigners.
This article treats materials from the burial of the Bronze Age from kurgan 1 near Suvorove, Odessa region. It was excavated by I. L. Alexeeva in 1970. It yielded a vessel that is similar to the ceramic containers of Bell Beaker culture of Central Europe.
The masculine burial was found in 2012, accompanied by the find of fifty compact located bronze dolphins. All dolphins shallow anepigrafic е and belong to many kinds of different types. Majority does not have tracks of the use. About twenty percents make productive marriage. Stratigrafy of burial does not ground for his dating. Time of money circulation of dolphins while exactly is not set. In the funeral ceremony of Olbio dolphins were used from the first half 5 BC to the border of 3-4 BC. A lot of dolphins in one burial, that hasn’t trice of circulation, can talk about professional specialization the dead. However, such conclusion many kinds of types of wares conflicts with. Therefore a question about interpretation of this burial place remains open.
The interesting materials of different periods have been discovered in Southwest Georgia. Among them we can list the Ottoman coffee cups of the late Middle Ages. The fragments of vessels belong to one of the late groups of the Turkish pottery. The presence of stamps and multi-colored fine patterns in the ornament let us define precisely a place of their manufacture – Kutahia – Turkish pottery center. The master-ceramists from the city used oriental (Chinese) and local (Turkish) motifs of ware ornamentation.
These materials can be dated from 17-18th centuries, though the most of them seem to belong to the First half of 18th century. The samples of Kutahia Ceramics discovered in Southwest Georgia were classified into the groups according to their colors, ornaments and decorative design. They were divided into two main groups: a) Monochrome and b) Polychrome.
These materials have been presented from Gonio fortress and Batumi fortress (South Georgia) and Kutaisi fortress (West Georgia). The most of them were discovered at the site of Gonio fortress, which was the main fortress of the Ottoman’s period in Southwest Georgia. A few fragments were found at the site of Tbilisi fortress and an old settlement of Dmanisi (East Georgia).
New settlement of Sabatynivka 1 type was recently discovered by O.S. Peresunchak. Its collection contains numerous potsherds that can be attributed to the “Steppe influence”, in particular to relations with Skelya culture or second stage of Seredniy Stog culture. This fact gives a possibility to meet some debatable issues of Trypillia – Steppe interactions and definition of Sabatynivka 1 type itself.
Based on the analysis of social groups of Rus 10-13th centuries, the author concludes that the wage-work was widely used in that period. These historians before 1917 also belong to the group of wage-work, but after 1917 for ideological reasons they attributed to the lower layers of feudal society. The author does not consider legitimate the classification of the social system of Kyiv’s Rus as feudalism according to Marxist theory of formations, and finds promising the method of Eduard Meyer and Charles Tilly
This article is dedicated to the analysis of the “Last supper” (1505-1510) by a southern German anonymous painter. Non-canonical details of the image are interpreted as “imagines agentes” used for the better memorizing of texts. Such approach to the image was maintained by Martin Luther during the Reformation, when he permitted images in churches on condition that they will instruct and remind the faithful of the biblical scenes and texts. This “Last supper” had embodied features of both medieval art and new humanistic ideas and prepared in this way the development of the Reformation iconography over the next decades.
The article examines the overland movement of Roman troops in the northern Black Sea region, which resulted in the erection of forts on the key areas at the crossing of rivers. Advancing of the troops in the steppes can be associated with the campaign of T. Plautius Silvanus to the Chersonesus. Some of the units, which could make the march and build forts on the borders of the Olbian state, are perhaps mentioned in the Olbian decree from Mangup.
The collection of the Vilkove (Odesa region) museum contains the coins found on the territory of the southern Bessarabia. It includes the coins dated from the Roman time to the 40s years of the 20th century. A part of the museum collection, coins of Western Europe and Russia, are published in this article.
The author publishes glass vessels from the excavation of the necropolis Shyroka Balka. These are two amphoriskos and alabastron. Vessels were made in core-formed technique of white opaque glass and decorated with zigzag pattern. The vessels were dated 525 – 500 BC by the typological analogies. Probably they were imported from Rhodes. Finds support the reconstruction of cultural and economic connections of Rhodes with Olbia during this period.
The article describes the basic argues of unionist idea, actualized after James I succession of English crown. James I declared immediately that he had intention to transform the union of crowns to union of kingdoms. James saw himself as the head of new empire and the creator of new nation. Despite of the Parliament of England and common commission of Scottish and English parliaments could not elaborate the model of Union appropriated to both sides, idea of Union found a lot of supporters. They hoped the Union would make island kingdom stronger and simultaneously keep Scottish and English identities. The Supporters of the Union used geographic, religious, linguistic and antiquarian arguments evidencing the unity of birth of two nations.
The paper pioneers to consider the character of spreading of early Scythian monuments over the northern Black Sea region. The data is based on analysis of all known and reliably dated complexes. The study marks three main areas of concentration of early Scythian monuments and their lack in the surroundings of Greek colonies Borysthenes and Olbia.
Keywords: early Scythian culture, funeral complexes, anthropomorphous sculptures, chronoindicators.
The article analyzes the forms of commonware from the Maslyny settlement relating to chora of Tauric Chersonesos. This type of pottery is widely represented by forms that were specific for the Hellenistic period: pans with lids, pots, jugs, bowls were widely used in everyday life of population. It was found that this type of pottery arrived to the settlement from Chersonesos and it confirms the close economic contacts within the polis, a wide range of Chersonesos ceramic production in Hellenistic times and traditional Greek life on the border of the ancient world.
Anacharsis, a legendary Scythian sage, is a famous figure in the literature of classical antiquity. Though initially his image had religious features, it would later lose them. His name was mentioned by Johannes Reuchlin (1455-1522), one of the most important creators of prisca theologia, a sophisticated European philosophic occult tradition. Reuchlin mentions him, however, only as a citation from Cyril of Alexandria (without reference), which receives no further elaboration.
In article on the basis of first introduced into scientific use of archival sources and scientific literature reconstructed the history of attempts of opening, existence and the elimination of the Odessa archaeological Institute. The role of the Odessa scientists in the emergence, realization and embodiment of the idea of creating the first and only one in the history of Odessa specialized educational institution for training specialists in the field of historical science. For the first time in scientific literature presents a full list of the Institute’s professors and academic disciplines that have been read in the first and only academic year of the Institute. Lists the names of several students, who after obtaining higher education at another Institute has devoted his academic career to archaeological research and surveys in the field of other special historical disciplines.
In the article we examine the contribution of Odessa historian Ph. K. Brun to investigation of medieval Genoese colonies in the Crimea. Though his publications were not quite fundamental, Ph. K. Brun considered a number of important questions in his works: 1) the significance of the map by Genoese Pietro Vesconte dated 1318 as an oldest one among medieval Italian maps of the Black Sea; 2) the confessional structure of Caffa; 3) time of consolidation of Genoese in the Crimea and management system of their colonies; 4) brief history of Soldaia before 1475.
The issue analyses the pilgrimages of westerners to the Holy land as the possible source for reinforcements of the Byzantine army. The Great Pilgrimage of 1064-1065 is considered to play an essential role in the case of German solders engagement that was mentioned in Greek sources at 1069 for the first time.
Pavel Maiboroda (Odesa) The first day of creation in Genesis: Cyril of Alexandria against Julian the Apostate. The article is dedicated to the analysis of the polemics between famous pagan political actor Julian the Apostate and Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria. The author examines the work of Cyril «Against impious Julian» that almost has not been yet analyzed in Ukrainian historiography. In his conclusions, the author emphasizes that Cyril didn’t respond in fact to a rigorous analysis Genesis by Julian. However, thanks to the great erudition, Cyril comes to identifying common features of biblical and Greek cosmological myth. In some sense it was innovation in the era of Late Antiquity.
In 2004 Mologa expedition of Odessa Archaeological Museum carried out excavations of kurgan N 2 near village Mologa (Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi district, Odesa region). There were 165 burials of 5 cultural and historical divisions. The largest group contained 142 burials of Nogai nomads. The paper treats cultural and chronological characteristics of these burials, their comparative analysis with known cemeteries of nomads in Bugeac.
Analysis of burial rite of Nogai burials gives us reasons to name it syncretic. The rite included Pagan and Muslim traits.
Key words: Nogai, burial rite, Turks, Bugeac.
The practice of forced resettlement of conquered nomadic population was a twist of the policy of the Golden Horde, formed in the concept of “unagan Bohol”. The most representative is the example of the Chernye Klobuki. Their resettlement can be clearly seen in two directions of the Upper Dniester and the Volga region. It is reasonable to say that it was another area of migration to the north-western Black Sea. This is indicated by the burial in the middle stream of the Dniester and Southern Bug.The direction of migration indicates the administrative functions assigned to the Chernye Klobuki as a part of the Golden Horde. Fast assimilation of the Chernye Kolbuki in the medium of other peoples of the North Black Sea Region placed a number of questions which still should be untied
Analysis of the ceramic amphora material from the coast sites of the Odessa Bay allows to claim that the first deliveries of the Greek wine and olive oil in the amphorae was at the end of the third quarter of 6th c. BC (Chios, Lesbos, Milet). The trade operations were intensified at the end of 6th – beginning of 5th c. BC. Peak of the trade traffic occurred in the middle – third quarter of 4th c. BC (Thasos, Heraclea Pontica, Chios, Sinop, Knidos, Peparet, Chersonesus, Acanthus, Kos, Murighiol type). The latest wine imports refer to the second half of 3rd c. BC.
This paper presents an analysis of bronze bells found in the early Iron Age archaeological contexts of Scythian culture from the Ukrainian forest-steppe and northern Caucasus. The shape and design of the external surface of the body allows subdivision of these artefacts into four groups. The emergence of bells in the south of Eastern Europe is considered as innovation of archaic Scythian period and can be related with the participation of Scythians in the Transcaucasian and Near Eastern military campaigns.
In 2015 near Nova Ushytsya (Khmelnitsky region, Ukraine) local resident accidentally found a treasure of Roman denarii. There were no other antiquities of the first centuries AD in place identifying the treasure. Denarii of the following emperors were found in the complex: Vespasian (1), Titus (1), Trajan (4), Hadrian (6), Sabina (1), Lucius Aelius (1), Faustina the Elder (4), Antoninus Pius (9), Faustina the Younger (6), Lucius Verus (1), Lucilla (1), Marcus Aurelius (17), Crispina (3), Commodus (12), Julia Domna (1). All found denarii were minted in Rome.
Oleg N. Melnikov (Mykolaiv) Сountermarks on silver coins of Panticapaeum and the Olbian law of Kanob.
The Olbian law of Kanob required to exchange an elektrum stater of Kyzikos on 8½ silver staters of Olbia. Thus 1 obol was kept in favor of Olbia. This rule caused a countermark “Apollo’s head” on the triobol of Panticapaeum. At exchange of a stater of Kizikos the countermarks raised triobol on 1 obol in the income of Panticapaeum to value of 4 obols.
Information about a comprehensive study of Sviatopolk’s srebreniks with sign “cross” is produced in the paper: data on metrological analysis, topography, assay examination and calculation of coins with traces of non-economic usage. The quantity of known coins redoubled over the past two decades and reached 102 pieces in number. It is ascertained that Sviatopolk’s srebreniks with sign “cross” have peak of weight about 2,8 grams, and assay analysis testifies that all investigated recently discovered specimens are billon and high-standard pieces. The range of findings involves area of Ukrainian and Russian territories to the extent of 1 000 km. The derived data changes existing representation about coin issues of Sviatopolk.
Olexandr Y. Muzychko (Odesa) Concerning the scientific biography of P.Y. Karyskovskyi: professor S. Borovoy’s review of the doctoral thesis abstract “Coinage and Monetary Circulation in Olbia (6th century B.C. – 4th century A.D.)”
Among 136 finds of aurei in Ukraine, information on which has become known in recent years, aurei of Emperor Gallienus is one of interesting groups. Their study is important for understanding of the events of the third quarter of 3rd cent. AD. If influx of aurei second quarter 3rd cent. AD to Barbaricum related to the victory of the barbarians at the battle of Abritus (251 AD), then aurei of Gallienus are likely related to the military activities of the barbarians on the Balkans and Asia Minor in 260-s AD.
The paper is devoted to the historiographical “biography” of Sir Robert Filmer’s political ideas. Their interpretation strongly depended on political, ideological and chronological contexts they were put in by Anglo-American scholars. Filmer’s political theory was formed in the middle of the 17th century, but became well-known on the eve of the Glorious Revolution as an object of fierce criticism from the early Whigs. It opened different ways of investigation. For more than one hundred years Filmer’s political legacy has been analyzed in the spirit of classical intellectual history and of microhistorical methodology, in close connection with the realities of the two English revolutions of the 17th century and also with American social and political life of the 19th century. The author tries to deal with these games of contexts.
N.I. Nikolaev (Mykolaiv) New data about Olbian eponyms. Some modern data about the eponyms of Olbia are compared with the materials from the article of P.O. Karyshkovskyi “The eponyms of Olbia” (1978). The catalogue of eponyms IosPE. I2. 201 contains: 105 BC—the year of Apollo (IosPE. I2. 35), 97 BC —the year of Anaximenos (IOlb. 30). The inscriptions of Olbia with eponymous formula (IosPE. I2. 33, 35; IOlb. 30, 75) date to the turn of the ΙΙ-Ι centuries BC (this is the period of “early” Mithridates VI Eupator). Probably, the state documents of Olbia were controlled by non-official representatives of Mithridates – the foreigners (Stephen, the son of Alexander, the son of Zobios). Obviously Mithridates had been preparing for the transition to the era of Bosporus in subordinated polis. The catalogue of eponyms of Olbia IosPE. I2. 201 was stopped and fixed in stone in about 95 year BC.
Both written sources and ethnographic data attest that livestock was the key export product of nomads. Scythians were no exception. Archaeozoological findings demonstrate that Scythians brought various kinds of livestock to the markets of the Greek city-states on the North Shore of the Black Sea. Scythian hornless cattle breed was the most prominent export product. The export of Scythian sheep was probably lesser in scope; the Greeks used them to breed new hybrids, well suited to the steppe climate. Horse trade was the lowest in scope. The changes in the breed composition of Greek settlers’ cattle and sheep demonstrate that the supply must have been high. At certain points in the history of Olbia and Bosporus, the supply of Scythian livestock must have played an important role in the local economy.
Research relations between Odessa and territory that’s modern Moldova nowadays started since late 18th century (F.P. de Wollant). They reached particular amplitude when M.S. Vorontsov was appointed a governor, museum was founded in Odessa in 1825 and Odessa Society of History and Antiquities (I.P. Blaramberg, N.N. Murzakevich) began its working. Second half of 19th and early 20th century was marked by the activity of I.K. Surucan and E.R. Stern. The interactions became especially intensive and multifaceted in the second half 20 – early 21th century (joint expeditions, congresses, participation in the editing of quarterly and yearly published magazines Stratum Plus, Revista arheologicǎ).
The article is designated to be an introduction into the history of the Osmanian town Ismail on the Danube. It was founded as vakf – casabasinda Ismail Gechidi (Ismail’s ferriage) – in the service system of the sultan’s harem during the reign of Murad III. Its dynamic development and growth were connected with transit port and trade – a source of significant gains for vakf, as evidenced by many Turkish documents. The funds of vakf created adequate infrastructure.The inhabitants lived mostly in the inner town, and part of Christian population – in the adjacent settlement. Border specifics of the town reflects the multiethnic and multi-religious composition. In the 80-s of 18 century a fortress was built on the basis of the town. Taken by Russian troops in December 1790, the town was significantly destroyed, most of its population was captured or perished. This social disaster was the end of the history of the Osmanian Ismail.
At two suburban estates of Olbia (Shyroka Balka 6-7) 13 lead spindles were excavated, showing the spinning, in which residents of these estates were involved. These are spindles of various types, mostly without ornament. There was a very interesting spindle–”wheel” with graffito in the form of Δ.
Spindles found at the estate of Shyroka Balka (Broad Hollow) 6 of the second third of the 5th – the beginning of the 3rd centuries BC and Shyroka Balka (Broad Hollow) 7 of the end of 5th – the 30-s of the 4th centuries BC allow us to clarify the dating of these artifacts.
The article analyzes remnants of the early medieval residential buildings in the north-eastern and northern regions of Chersonese. In the northern district of Chersonesos residential complex was found, which functioned from the first to sixth centuries AD. In the 7th – 9th centuries it was rebuilt. Excavations in the north-eastern district also opened several estates. They were also rebuilt in the 7th – 9th centuries.
Author publishes numerous artefacts recovered from the surface of the Cherniakhiv settlement Bila Skelia (discovered in 1974 by a team lead by V.N. Stanko). Collection includes rare and interesting metal items, particularly decorated pottery and a selection of coins. Roman coins were issued in 2-4th centuries AD. Thanks to these finds, Bila Skelia became one of the few relatively firmly dated sites of the Roman age in the north of Odessa Region.
Ilyinka cave (Odesa region, Beliaievka district) was investigated in 1938–1941 and 1945–1947, predominantly as paleontological location. Significant part of the cave was investigated under the direction of A.L. Roschin in 1938–1940, when numerous faunal remains and flint products were detected in the cave deposits. This small collection of flints (42 pieces) was analysed by S.N. Zamiatnin, who attributed them to Mousterian and Epi-Paleolithic times, basing on manufacture technique and state of preservation (presence of patina and smoothed surfaces).
Flint inventory analysis shows the absence of full cycle of flint knapping (waste products were not found), the presence of intensive patina, also traces of damage and erosion. These facts give the evidence that flint artifacts got to the cave in finished forms and after some time of staying in the open air.
The lack of clear understanding of the origin of flint artifacts in Ilyinka cave makes premature any conclusions about the activity of ancient man (whether cave bear hunting or dead animals bones processing, some ritual activity etc.).
The article treats a short but important period of P.O. Karyshkovskii’s biography, when he was a scientific collaborator in Odessa Archaeological Museum (1944-1946). These were the hard times after the Second World War and restoration of Museum’s Funds took enormous efforts by often-hungry researchers under huge administrative pressure. P.O. Karyshkovkii chose his own particular way in this uneasy setting. He remained apolitical and entered the conflict with the director. Maybe, that is why period of his work in Odessa Museum was too short.
The article discusses the contribution of Professor of Novorossiiskii University A.G.Brückner in forming of new reflexive disciplines – Historiography and Source study. This subject was not publicized in the scientific literature, its statement was made by the author for the first time. A.G.Brückner attended a course in several German universities, he worked in the seminar J.G.Droysen. In Novorossiiskii University he was the first to lecture on theoretical courses “Encyclopedia and Methodology of History” (since 1867) and “historical criticism” (since 1868). The name of the first course was borrowed from J.G.Droysen, who read a similar course in the University of Berlin. A.G.Brückner developed a program to create a new discipline – history of historical science. He defined its problem field, described the importance of this discipline for the development of historical science and showed it in the system of scientific knowledge. A.G.Brückner proposed the name of the discipline – a source study of Russian history, and developed a program of its formation in the Russian historiography. The article focuses on the fact that the appearance of these subjects reflects the specifics of the disciplinary system in the Russian science, in contrast to Western science.
The paper presents the preliminary data on rescue archaeological research of the barrow Nr. 8 near Cimişlia (Republic of Moldova) in 2015. According to the stratigraphy, the construction of the initial mound, ditch and the cult complex (consisting of six buried vertical logs) were connected with the grave nr. 3 of late Eneolithic time. The next chronological horizon is represented by the graves of Zhivotilovka type (nr. 1 and 8). In addition, there were excavated two graves of Yamna culture, one grave of Catacomb culture, two Sarmatian and one Medieval nomad grave.
Tradition of (auto)biographical texts in private tombs originated in the Memphis necropolises during V dynasty, and later spread throughout the provincial necropolises of Egypt. Every pattern of autobiographical text was compiled to present a tomb owner as a particular righteous person in the system of ancient Egyptians social conventions according to the general notion of a righteous person and righteous behavior. Saqqara tradition had a profound impact on the repertory of the autobiographical phraseology in the provincial necropolises. During the FIP a number of provincial necropolises elaborated their own traditions of autobiographical inscriptions, in particular, those of Abydos, Thebes, Siut, and Dendera.
This study outlines the local autobiographical tradition of Dendera, from the earliest autobiographical texts in the local necropolis, paying the foremost attention to the autobiographical texts of the FIP. The corpus of survived autobiographical texts from Dendera now includes no less than 27 entries containing the autobiographies, texts with the autobiographical phrases or some fragments of autobiographical texts. The significant part of excavated materials and inscriptions from Dendera is still unpublished, so the corpus is likely to increase. The presented results are rather preliminary, due to the format of the conference thesis; the more detail consideration of the tradition of Dendera autobiography requires additional time and space.
In the 12th – 14th centuries temple and earrings decorated with metal beads were popular in the Carpathian-Balkan region. One and three-bead decorations with embossed or open worked globs were widespread. A distinctive feature of three-bead jewelry is the fact that the central bead is larger than the side beads. Typologically these decorations are significantly different from the samples of the Old Rus pre-Mongolian antiquities. Apparently, their prevalence is connected with the popularity of the Byzantine and post-Byzantine decorations. With regard to rings with many beads, they are found only on the territory of the medieval principality of Moldova. Their appearance is evidently due to the contacts with the population of Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
This paper describes the images on gold plates from kurgan Omelnyk wooden bowls. Types of images are analyzed and they present an analogy of images in Scythian animal style.
Keywords: Scythians, animal style, plot, iconographic tradition.
Besides of traditional point of view according to which the Late Scythian culture belongs to the settled classic Scythians there are hypotheses about affiliation of this culture with migrants from Olbia (A. Chirkov, V. Hoshkevich), orient Satarhae conquerors (Yu. Zaitsev), refugees from Olbia, mixed with the local people (N. Havrilyuk, V. Krapivina). The author considers the Late Scythian culture of Lower Dnieper basin to be originated by the Scythians of so called Tiraspil barrows group who had migrated to Lower Dnieper in the mid-2nd c. BC.
The article is devoted to the Scythian burial of the second half of the 4th century BC, discovered near Glinoe village, Slobodzeia region, on the left bank of the Lower Dniester in 2015. As part of the inventory of ordinary female burial, among other things, there was found “scarabeoid” of yellow glass. The “scarabeoid” had stamped image of a kneeling bearded man in a chiton (left side view) standing on his left knee and holding a unwrapped scroll.
Obviously, in the second half of the 4th century BC the contacts between Greeks and Scythians in the Lower Dniester littoral were quite regular and their economic and trade connections were permanent. Only in this way it is possible to explain the appearance of such a prestigious thing as intaglio in ordinary Scythian burial.
The article is devoted to the works on the archeological monument of ancient time on the territory of Mykolaiv city in 2015. The works were carried out within the framework of security excavations at the settlement Big Korenikha III. It has been studied on one hundred square meters of the object. During the works it was revealed a number of architectural objects (economic pit, a trench for the substructure) and a variety of ceramic material. The analysis of ceramics allowed the authors to expand the chronological framework of the existence of a settlement from Cherniakhivska archaeological culture (3rd century A. D.) to the late Archaic time (5th – 4 th centuries B. C.) and Roman period (1st – 2nd centuries A. D.) It should be noted also the pyramidal nucleus of pre-pottery Neolithic period, which may indicate a wider dating of the monument.
Concept of cultural resilience, applied for studies of past human response to the global climate change during the last decade, allows to highlight many aspects of human behavior which were underestimated in frames of other theories (as theory of adaptation, environmental stress and others). Subject of current contribution is to demonstrate of cultural resilience concept application in the context of studies of human response to the global climate change in the Northwestern Black Sea region on the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary.
The article critically reviews the content of the 575 year Novel which gave breaks for cargo transportation by ships to the northern and north-eastern Black Sea coast. There is specified that the Novel can not testify to decline of maritime carriage into Cherson and does not refer to deliveries of materials required for shipbuilding. This erroneous statement should be revised.
The Yamnaya culture has been studied for more than half of a century. After 1980th a lot of information about monuments of Carpathian-Dniester region was uncovered. The basic traits of the culture were identified, chronological limits were defined, spread area and classification of artifacts were delimited. Analysis of the funeral ritual is the main source of information about the culture because other archaeological sites (settlements for example) were not identified. The specifics of the funeral ritual is defined by a form of pits (rectangular or oval), four basic versions of buried position, inventory deposited in the graves and other remains.
The burial assemblage of Nesitaudjatakhet, the Theban Priestess of the 21st Dynasty buried in Bab el-Gasus Cachet (Lot № 6 of Khedive Gift from 1893), is observed in the paper. Now her funerary objects belong to the museums of five countries. The outer coffin of this lady is kept in Odessa (OAM 52976). In 1895 the inner coffin was directed to Kazan and the mummy board – to Yuryev University (now it’s in Voronezh). Shabti-box is kept in St. Gallen at Switzerland, while shabties are in Leiden and Cairo, and the heart scarab is in Zagreb. Two funerary papyri of Nesitaudjatahet are kept in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.
This article presents the analysis of French popular opinion about education of problems religion tolerance as exposed in the Cahiers of 1789. Special attention is devoted to the formation of new cultural aspects in the political life of France during the initial years of the Revolution.
The article gives a comparative characteristic of funeral rites on different territories of the former Golden Horde. The final result shows that Islam had penetrated onto the territory of the Ulus of Juchi irregularly, sometimes preserving large pagan remnants.
The series of burials of Babinskaia culture – pits with shelves – are examined in the article. Their characteristics and interpretation are given. The peculiar constructive element allows a comparison of such complexes with Late Pit burials of Early Bronze Epoch. Reflection of Late Pit traditions in burial ritual of Babino bearers is not excluded.
Key words: Babinskaya culture, pits with shelves, burial ritual.
The considerable part of coins of the first series of the Olbian minted copper coin has reduction of personal names. As P. O. Karyshkovskyi believed, those were the names of annually replaced magistrates which controlled release of a coin in Olviya.
Studying of coins from private collections gave new reductions of such names, in particular for copper of the second series two new reductions are revealed: NAI, MH.
The article is devoted to the attribution of ancient painted vases, which is located at Odessa Archaeological Museum. The museum has collected a large number of “Kerch style” vases. Considered vase is a good example of this style. The plot of painting is the battle with the Amazons griffins, quite common in ancient art. One of the challenges is to attract similar works of art from other museums in the world. The author found a similar picture in many collections and museums. We consider the mythological and religious meaning of images.
Considering importance for an exposition of the remains of a citadel for the project of their museumification, the decision to carry out necessary archaeological supplementary examinations was made. The works were begun in 2005 and proceed to the present.
Thus, during supplementary examinations of 2005 – 2015 the construction remains of “barracks” and the continuation of a curtain No. 6 noted on B. V. Farmakovskyі’s plans were opened. The territory to the North, the West and the South directly adjoining a curtain No. 6 is investigated additionally that allowed to reveal «pole» No. 10 (column) and its design, a stone pavement No. 44 which isn’t recorded on old plans. Opening of the «pole» indirectly confirms locations of an aperture of gate, planned by B. V. Farmakovskyі.
Also opening of part of the northwest curtain No. 77, «tower» No. 88, stone pavement flanking a northwest curtain from the East was new.
The foreign policy and diplomacy of the European states of the late Middle Ages or of the early Modern Period are analyzed in the article. Particular attention is paid to the institutional development of social and political thought in Europe. The directions of development of theory and practice of foreign policy and diplomacy in Europe of the period and especially institutional, diplomatic and negotiating practices, political ideals and real images of diplomats are considered.
Keywords: the foreign policy, the diplomacy, the political and diplomatic practice, institutionalization, late of the Middle Ages, the early time of the Modern Period, the Europe.
The article deals with the identification of political Wycliffism as one of the trends in the religious life of England late 14th century. The key issue is the definition of religious and political properties of the group of so-called Lollard Knights. The author focuses on questions of terminology and biography studies.
The article deals with the coin findings from the basin of Tiligul river, kept in the private collections. Coins of different periods and issuers are represented among these findings: Olbia, Macedonia, Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Latin Empire, Second Bulgarian Empire, Sultanate of Rum, Golden Horde, Ottoman Empire and Crimean Khanate. Special attention is paid to the issue of monetary circulation among the Noghay nomads of Edissan Horde, who inhabited the Tiligul basin in the 18th c.
Key words: monetary circulation, Tiligul basin, Noghay nomads.