Стародавнє Причорномор’я. Випуск XII / Голов. ред. І. В. Нємченко. – Одеса: Одеський національний університет імені І. І. Мечникова, 2018. – 632 с.
Iryna V. Nemchenko. To the fifty-fifth anniversary of the Department of Ancient and Medieval History of Odessa I. I. Mechnikov National University
Tetiana A. Izbash-Gotskan. The studies of Antiquity at the Department of Ancient and Medieval History
Vadym V. Chepizhenko. The development of medieval studies at the Department of Ancient and Medieval History of Odessa I. I. Mechnikov National (before 2000 – State) University
Sergei Agulnikov. The biggest cemetery of Belozerka culture was excavated in the Lower Danube region in North-West Pontic territory.
The cemetery is located on the steep plateau and on the interfluvial hills. This necropolis of Belozerka culture is the line disposition not far from the big steep barrow with the rich principal tombs.
V.P. Alexeev, P.G. Loboda. Rare and unpublished variants of coins of ancient cities of the Northern Black Sea area.
Following coins are published in the article : Nikonion – senior denomination, hemiobol with the name “ΣΚΥΛ” (Figure I, 1), Olbia – stater of Eminak (Figure I, 2), Kerkinitis – ass of highest denomination (Figure I, 3), five dichalks of Chersonesus (Figure II, 1-5) and assarion of Bosporan Kingdom “Helios – star, crescent moon” (Figure II, 6).
Svetlana I. Andrukh, Gennadii N. Toshchev. Sorokina Balka – new archaeological monument in the Lower Dnieper region
Bohdan Bodnariuk. West European premillenarism of the seventeenth century: the rebirth of apocalyptic sentiment and faith in the earthly kingdom of Christ against the background of the Thirty Years War and the English Puritan Revolution
In the article, the author examines the causes and premises of premillenarisation in Western Europe in the 17th century. The emphasis is placed on the process of reviving of apocalyptic sentiment and faith in the earthly kingdom of Christ. In addition, the author analyzes the problem in the context of the events of the Thirty Years War and the English Puritan Revolution. Particular attention is paid to the characterization of the theology of the Calvinist theologian Johann Henry Alsted and his work, The Beloved City, which was translated from Latin into English in 1643.
Keywords: West European premillenarism, Reformation, chiliasm, apocalyptic, Thirty Years War, English Revolution, Johann Henrich Alsted.
Andrey Boiko-Gagarin, Irina Korpusova, Dmitriy Yanov. Some peculiarities of circulation of the Ottoman yüzlüks in the Principality of Wallachia during 1810-1811
The article deals with circulation of the Ottoman large silver coins (yüzlüks) in the Principality of Wallachia in the light of M. Golenishchev-Kutuzov’s letter addressed to Duke de Richelieu, dated 29th July 1811. According to this document, the merchants from Russian Empire bought the Ottoman yüzlüks in exchange for the gold ducats in Wallachia and took them away to Odessa due to the favorable exchange rates. Some issues regarding the circulation of counterfeit coins in the beginning of 19th c. are also discussed
D. Bondarenko, O. Smirnov. Archaeological researches of ash-pit №. 2 of Viktorovsky shrine in 2017 year
The publication is devoted to the introduction into the scientific circulation of the main results of excavations in 2017 in the archaeological complex of the ancient Victorovka-I. Since 2013, the work has been focused on studying the sanctuary, located on the north of the settlement. During the last year the part of ash by early Hellenism time was investigated. The work gives a brief description of the complex and analysis of the material from its filing
Sergii B. Buiskih. Chora of Olbia – historical and archaeological relict of the ancient colonial era in Lower Pobuzhia
The study of the history of Nikonion («Roksolani city-site») is inseparably connected with the name of P.O. Karyshkovskyi. Such achievements of P.O. Karyshkovskyi as the identifying of the ancient name of the settlement (1966), the publication of the coins of the Scythian king Skyl, found in Nikonion (1987, 1990), as well as the publication of the decree in honor of Autocles from Tyra (1988) created the basis for the development of the new aspects of the city’s economic and political history.
Figurines were found at different sites of Usatovo Culture (3400-2900 BC). The largest amount of figurines were found during the excavation of the sacred places of the Great Kuialnik and the Maiaky. In the necropolis of Usatovo, anthropomorphic statuettes originate mainly from cult pits, only in the second cemetery they were found in graves. In Maiaky, anthropomorphic figurines are found in burial mounds and flat graves. Of the dozens of Usatove burial mounds of the Dniester region, anthropomorphic statuettes were found only in 3 burials near Sadove, Krasnogorsk, Ternovka villages. Three Usatove style figurines (“imported”) found in two graves in the Vykhvatincy cemetery. In most cases, anthropomorphic figures accompanied the children’s burials. Figurines from different complexes have special features in modeling and decor. In general, Usatove anthropomorphic plastic is represented by unique types of figurines that are not typical for Trypillya-Cucuteni, but their prototypes are in the culture of Cernavoda I.
A C14 date obtained for the famous Crimean site in 2006 appeared to correspond well with a new series of dates for the Gravettian habitation on Buran-Kaya III. The dates can be combined around an interval of 34010-33635 calBC. They are statistically contemporaneous with some direct dates on the bones of Homo sapiens, one of the earliest specimens ever attested in Europe, coming from the same layers on the site of Buran-Kaya III. The author hopes that every radiocarbon date will find its meaning in the context of further works.
In the article considers attitude to childhood in the Athenian polis in archaic and classical period in connection with the study of the ideal citizen concept. After the reform of Cleisthenes, the child who was introduced into the phratry began to be regarded as a future citizen of the polis. Athenian polis had the practice of caring for children by dint of name, amulets, medical care. The boys who were introduced into the phratry were brought up in accordance with the values and ideals of the polis. Boys were participants in the socio-cultural life of the polis which formed the basis for further formation of their personality in the paideia.
The concept and using of aiiah– as a term for “metal/iron” in the corpus of Avestan texts is considered in the paper. The review of the aiiah- / “iron” in the Avestan showed a fairly wide range of its usage as a noun, adjective, and as a part in various compound forms. The context points to a number of semantic aspects of the concept of aiiah-iron material: eschatological (Yasna 30, 7; 32, 7; 51, 9; Yasht 17, 20), cosmological (Yasna 11, 7; Yasht 13, 2), ritualistic (Videvdad 5, 38; 8, 89), as a part of proper name (Yasht 13, 112), mythological (Yasna 9, 11), mythological/ military (Yasht 10, 70, 96, 131; 13, 112; Videvdad 14, 9).
From the beginning of the 5th millennium BC public buildings and structures became widespread in the settlements of ancient farmers in Central and South-eastern Europe. All they required significant collective efforts and a certain level of social organization. Important is the discovery of the various temples, including those within a single settlement that had different meanings. With all their diversity, common traits are observed, as well as the spread of the traditions of their construction and decoration between different cultures. The magnitude of such construction shows both the economic and engineering abilities of ancient societies, as well as the realization of the need for a demonstration of the significance of some groups of population.
The study is devoted to the monument of Byzantium defensive architecture represented by a small fortress Sivag-Kermen, recently opened on the ridge Uzun-Sirt in the mountains of the South-West Crimea. The author of the research analyzes the architectural and construction features, tactical and topographical components of the monument, archaeological artifacts; he carries parallels with the similar small fortresses (castellums), built in the last quarter of the IV century during the reign of Emperor Valens (364–378) and reсonstructed in the first half of the VI century by the engineers of Justinian I (527–565) in the province of Scythia in the Balkans. Probably, built in the first half of the VI century, castellum Sivag-Kermen was part of a local defense assembly (klisura) which defended a strategically important route leading to the fortress of Eski-Kermen and the seaside city-fortress of Kherson. The author believes that the klisura was one of the links of the regular protective frontier (limes Tauricus) built by Byzantium in the Southwest Taurica in the VI century.
Key words: Byzantium, Tauric (Crimea), limes Tauricus, klisura, castellum Sivag-Kermen.
The excavations of LatePalaeolithic site of Anetovka 2 (18-19 thousand years b.p.), situated in Steppe Boeg region (Ukraine) give the evidence of intensive utilization of pigment ochres in form of mineral raw material, coloured sections of earth, ochres decorations and articles, “mineral pencils”, painted bison skulls and shoulder-blades, tools for artifact manufacture (hammers, anvils). Large pieces of ochre were utilized not only as the source of paints, but also for manufacture of articles.
The description and systematization of different finds, that are related to ochre utilization at the site, allows to reconstruct some links (different stages) of paint manufacture and application “chain”. The ochre finds on Anetovka II are related to different objects of cultural layer and reflect certain stages of primitive culture development, being a peculiar “echo” of ancient religious conceptions and aesthetic preferences.
The article published the results of soil filtration from the object found under the embankment of the shaft in urochyshche Tsaryna Mohyla of the Bil’s’k hill-fort. At the first time in the history of research palaeoethnobotanical materials were obtained in the course of targeted searches by the flotation method. The paleoethnobotanical mass spectrum is represented by approximately 2/5 of Hordeum vulgare and Panicum miliaceum, as well as 1/10 parts of Secale cereale and Triticum dicoccon. The high indicators of the first two cultures are typical to the early Iron Age. Secale cereale is much rarer. Minor weeds can indicate that the surrounding fields were fairly clean. It is not excluded that this indicates an initial period of development of the potential resource zone around the settlement.
Keywords: Bil’s’k hill-fort, scythian time, flotation, palaeoethnobotany, grain farming.
The article reveals the peculiarities of the appearance of bricks on the territory of Vinnitsa. It considers the main factors affecting the use of certain types of building materials. The author briefly examines the history of Vinnitsa during the Middle Ages, in connection with the peculiarities of using of different building material types. The paper analyzes the natural conditions and socio-political circumstances that influenced the appearance of the first brick buildings in the city
I. S. Grebtsova. Plots of antique history and mythology in the works of the European artists of the 18th – first half of the 19th century.
The article analyzes the works of European artists of the 18th – first half of the 19th century F. Boucher, J.-L. David, A. Kauffmann, K. Bryullov, A. Ivanov and others, who paid considerable attention to the creation of paintings on the theme of ancient history and mythology
Yevhen Huliuk. Changing of the status of history and the historical knowledge structure in the Jesuits educational system in the middle of the 18th century.
The purpose of this research is to analyse the transformation of Jesuit educational system in the middle of the 18th century. Based on the text “Rudimenta historica” the most characteristic signs of historical knowledge in the 18th century were shown. According to the article, in that time history is singled out from rhetoric and start to develop as separate science. Moreover, the history of Asia, Africa and America become to be an object of studying. Also the problem of the image of history is present.
Viktor Humennyi. Military garrisons in the Middle East and Rome’s Parthian campaigns in the second – early third centuries CE (based on epigraphical sources)
The article deals with the problem of the epigraphical research of the Eastern frontier of the Roman Empire dealing with Roman foreign policy, especially with the military campaigns of the Antonine and Severan dynasty rulers against Parthia. In the East, the main rival of the Roman Empire was the Arsakid Kingdom. In the Age of the Antonines and Severans, the military struggle between the two states reached an apogee. The Roman Near East is analyzed in the context of discussion which focuses on the problems of Roman limes studies and Roman strategy in the period of Early Empire. The author shows how the epigraphical sources can be used for the identification of Roman military forces in the Eastern frontier.
Olga Demchenko. Spatial organization of the sites of the Late Mesolithic – the Early Neolithic in the Dnieper Rapids region
The article is devoted to the regularities of the monuments location of certain types (island and coastal settlements) depending on paleogeography and geomorphology of the studied territory. The features of the hydrological regime of the Dnipro and the landscape features of the region have led to the emergence of a bush settlement system and the use of numerous islands for settlement organization. Despite of the stable population stagnation within the region, certain population mobility was still characteristic for the region, but these movements were cyclical, stable, systematic and repetitive within a territory controlled by one specific community. The settlements of the warm period of the year were arranged, mainly on islands and large rocks. In the cold period, combining efforts and accumulated resources, the community, which consisted of several «island groups», lived on coastal settlements. Synchronously on the territory according to our calculations, could live up to ten communities that were formed in one tribe.
The paper at hand discusses a part of the coin hoard, found in the Nisporeni region, Republic of Moldova in 2016. It consists of five Moldovan medieval groats, minted in the reign of Peter I Mushat (around 1375-1391). According to some information, the hoard was bigger, including also some other coin emissions of this ruler. Probably, the hoard was hidden at the beginning of the 90-s of the 14th century. Though we don’t know exactly the structure of this complex, the most important fact is that this is the first coin hoard of early Moldovan issues, ever found in the Prut-Dniester region.
The paper is devoted to the formation of the philological direction of the Byzantine studies in Kharkiv University in the middle of the 19th – the beginning of the 20th centuries. During this period Byzantine studies were inextricably linked with philology and literary studies. Well-known scholars-philologists I. Sreznevsky, M. Lavrovsky, M. Drinov, and O. Biletsky, who created significant scientific achievements on the verge of philology, literary studies and Byzantine studies, represented such scientific direction
The article deals with the issue of violator of the Arab-Byzantine Treaty of 689. The beginning of hostilities was provoked equally by the Empire and the Caliphate, which gradually strengthened its positions.
The article analyzes the letters of Zdena, Duchess of Saxony, to her son Duke George to define the political views on the Christian head of the country on the eve of the Reformation. In her letters the Duchess was persuading her son in the necessity to reform the Church as a way to raise the clergy morality. Zdena believed that the Christian duke had to combine secular and religious functions while ruling the country. In all her letters Zdena demonstrated her care about her son’s soul. The ideas which Zdena raised in her letters would be further developed in Erasmus of Rotterdam works
The article examines the main aspects of the new solar cult of Aten during the reign of king Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten), the Egyptian Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty. Based on the texts of the boundary stelae of «Early Proclamation», the author analyzes Aten’s position in the pantheon of other Egyptian gods and functions of Akhenaten as the chief priest of the cult.
The egyptian «Ptolemaic Finger Rings» are the group of archaeological artifacts; almost all of them were found in the North Black Sea Area. At present the question about their purpose isn’t resolved yet. This article is representing the hypothesis that they were Ptolemaic rewards for mercenaries and civil emigrants (including those from the North Black Sea Area), who arrived to the Hellenistic Egypt.
The article considers a historiographic context helpful in the current investigations of the cultural contacts between the societies of the east and west of Europe the early stage of formation of trade and exchange ways and possible participation of the population of North-Western Pontic in this process. The important elements in the reconstruction process are the data of archeology, ethnology and the history of primitive society. The economic aspect was the reason for distant contacts of the population in the Copper and Bronze Age.
The article compares the views of parliamentarians and constitutional royalists during the English Revolution of the 17th century on the material of political doctrines of such thinkers as John Spelman and Philip Hunton. The study of the treatises of Philip Hunton and John Spelman makes it possible to compare the views of parliamentarians and constitutional royalists on «mixed monarchy» and King’s role in the government of England.
This article was written by V. N. Klyushintsev in the middle of 90’s. Over past years a number of works where written on the development of metallurgy and metalworking of various regions of Ukraine in the era of bronze and early iron. In these works The Lower Pobuzh’ye was also mentioned. However, there were no special works on this topic devoted to this region. This article, which was adapted by V. B. Grebennykov in the light of new research, raises the relevance of this issue in our time.
Keywords: Lower Pobuzh’ye, the Bronze Age, metallurgy, metalworking, foundry workers
This paper is devoted to the discovery of a new site of Usatove culture. Author looks for analogies coming from other sites of the north-west Pontic area. He comes to conclusion that this find can fit in the spatial pattern previously observed in the region.
This paper aims at interpreting iconographical innovations in the Huybrecht Beuckelaer’s “Passover” (1563), which differs significantly from the traditional depictions of the Jewish supper. For the first time Passover appeared in the Netherlandish painting as a part of a typological cycle of the Dierc Bouts Saint Sacrament altarpiece. It had remained a main source for the Passover composition until the 1520s. In the art of the Antwerp mannerists, the Passover iconography was melted with the Last supper one. These changes were partly a result of the Reformation Eucharist controversy.
The Passover, being for the medieval theologians a closest prototype of the Last supper, became a main argument in writings of U. Zwingli and J. Oecolampadius for the symbolic interpretation of the Lord’s Supper. This interpretation was sealed by the Heidelberg catechism in 1563. As it seems, this event, in its turn, marked the Huybrecht Beuckelaer’s “Passover”. In our opinion, Beuckelaer depicted the “Exodus from Egypt” of the Catholic Church to a new, Reformed one, which was seen as a kind of the Promised Land.
Key words: Passover, Huybrecht Beuckelaer, the Netherlands, the Reformation.
In the North Pontic region core-formed glass vessels were found in temene of Olbia, sanctuaries of Myrmekion, Scythian Neapolis, Tuar-alan and Gurzuf Saddle pass. There were found 43 fragments in total in sacral contexts. Olbia yielded 37 fragments. The Olbian and Myrmekian finds are dated to the late 6–5th centuries BC and could be partially represented by items actually used during ritual performances. The application of core-formed glass in sacral areas was revived in the late 2nd century BC – early 1st century AD and is evidenced by finds (4 items) in sanctuaries of Gurzuf Saddle pass and Tuar-alan. These vessels were votive gifts.
In the article a translation and a brief analysis of the report of von Krekwitz of 1593 are published. To the summer of this year, the Turkish authorities had planned to build a castle in the Khadjibey. By that time there had been another one yet, old and abandoned castle. It was decided to restore this castle. But at the end of May, 1593 the work in Khadjibey was stopped. The new Turkish castle was not built in 1593 in Khadjibey, contrary to the opinions of some researchers. The old castle, an attempted reconstruction of which was undertaken in 1593, probably could exist here since the Lithuanian period.
In the article, based on a significant body of documentary materials first introduced into scientific circulation, an attempt to reconstruct some fragments of the biography of Professor A. G. Gotalov-Gotlib was made. A significant layer of scientific literature devoted to the person of the scientist was studied, as a result a large number of errors and inaccuracies were found in those narratives. Analysis of archival materials from the document stores of Odessa, Kiev and Moscow allowed making corrections and clarifications in the biography of Professor. Proposed amendments may help significantly to reconstruct some fragments of his biography in a new perspective, to eliminate the inaccuracies in it and to bring new strokes to the prosopographical portrait of A. G. Gotalov-Gotlib.
Keywords: A. G. Gotalov-Gotlib, Odessa, biography, mistakes, inaccuracies.
The article reviews the contribution of M. N. Petrov, professor of Kharkov University, to the study of French medieval history and historiography. It is emphasized that M. N. Petrov was the first in Ukrainian lands of Russian Empire who published: 1) a work completely devoted to medieval history of France – master’s thesis on government activity of Louis XI; 2) doctor’s thesis devoted to analysis of West European, including French, historiography; 3) an essay of Jeanne d’Arc deed; 4) Lectures on World History, their second volume referring to Middle Ages.
Key words: M. N. Petrov, history, historiography, Middle Ages, France, Kharkоv University
The museum of the village Yakovlivka of the Rozdilniansky district of Odessa region last year recieved a pot of Catacomb culture similar to amphora. There is an assumption that it originates from a burial mound near the village. A small number of vessels of this type does not allow archaeologists to present a complete picture of the development of the ceramic production of the Catacomb culture, so it is so important to study in detail each found instance.
Nuncii patriarche et imperatoris Grecorum mentioned by Joannis Dlugossius in attendance of Polish king Władysław II Jagiełło in spring of 1415 still remain mysterious. Careful survey of all diplomatic matters of that year gives possibility to reconstruct context and purposes of their negotiations. Ambassadors’ personalities are identified as one of Dishypatoi family and archimandrite Gavrylo, mentioned in the letter of the grand prince Vytautas of Lithuania. They had visited grand prince Vasily of Moscow in the question of his daughter Anna marriage with emperor Manuel son Ioannes. Next they visited bride grandfather – the grand prince Vytautas. There they’d got information about his plans of the election of new Kyiv metropolitan Gregory Tsamblak independent of another ‘Kyiv’ metropolitan Photius in Moscow and contrary to the will of patriarch of Constantinople. Later that same year, in May they met king Władysław Jagiełło on their way home to Constantinople with that news. Władysław must have been interested in the Vytautas project being himself deeply inspired by an idea of church union between his Orthodox subjects and Roman Catholic church. Being not planned, meeting in Sniatyn was not well documented and was not supported by emperor chrysobullos. Dishypatos and Gavrylo modestly asked ‘only for some corn’ as a diplomatic gift which king Władysław readily ordered them to receive in the royal port of Kaczubyeow. This turned out to be the oldest mention of that settlement at the place of modern day city of Odesa (Ukraine).
Disputes about the rule of the Bosporus Archon Hygiainon and his coins last more than a century. The appearance of a previously unknown coin – silver stator of Archon Hygiainon – finally establishes his dominance over the Bosporus at the end of the 3rd century BC.
The autochthonous coinage in the Principality of Kyiv finished exactly a thousand years ago. Only 193 specimens of emission by Prince Sviatopolk were preserved. They are distributed between 3 types: with Prince’s name (Sviatopolk) and symbol “cross” (128 coins), with name “Petor” and symbol “crescent” (39 coins) and with name “Petros” and symbol “anchor”(?) (26 coins). Name Petor is most probably baptismal name of the prince.
The statistical data about findings of coins by Sviatopolk are displayed from the moment of their first discovery until now. The runaway of number of coins’ findings at the beginning of the 21st c made it possible to create their detailed topography. Concentration of vast majority of coins in the borders of future Principality of Pereiaslav allow us to suppose that they were used in part to pay military garrisons on SW boundary of the Principality of Kyiv. It also indicates high degree of economic advancement of this region in the early of 11th c.
Seven finds of rare aurei of 3rd century AD usurpers are published: Quietus (1 coin), Postumus (3 coins), Tetricus I (2 coins) and Julian I (1 coin). They make up only a small percentage of the finds of gold coins of 1st-5th centuries AD from the territory of Ukraine. Perhaps the appearance of the coins of Quitus and the Gallic Empire rulers (Postumus and Tetricus) is associated with the participation of the Germans in the army of usurpers. In addition, the antoniniani of these emperors are also known from the finds from Ukraine. Appearance of the aureus of Julian I most likely happened accidentally, together with the party of the aurei of the Illyrian emperors and Tetrarchy period.
In Europe Polish scientists were pioneers in the field of classical studies of present day South of Ukraine. Rector of Jagiellonian University Maciej of Mechow was the first one among them. The fist «field survey» was conducted by Marcin Broniewski in 1578.
In 19th c. an important contribution to the classical studies was made by J. Potocki, I. A. Stempkowski and V. N. Yurgevich.
In the second half of 20th – beginning of 21th c. the connections between Odessa and Polish archeologists strengthened. Joint expeditions and exhibitions occurred, and participation in the scientific conferences, both in Polish cities and Odessa, became traditional.
The research analyses the fragment used for the binding of the manuscript of the 17th century «Miscellae quodlibeticae pro IWM». The parchment ribbon contains the text and neume form of notation. With paleographical investigation, the author shows that the fragment includes introit «Populus Sion, ecce Dominus veniet» and psalm «Qui regis Israel». The melody of the section is unique, as has no analogies in most complete of early music Cantus database. The date of the manuscript fragment is the 10th or 11th century. The investigation stresses the importance of the manuscript fragmentology for manuscript studies with this case-study.
The article is devoted to new monuments of archeology, which were discovered by the author in 1996 – 2017 during the investigation of the territory of Gaivoronskyi district, Kirovograd region, where the Mogylianka River flows, the left tributary of the Southern Bug.
These include the location where artefacts of the culture of line-ribbon ceramics, Trypillia and Cherniakhiv cultures were discovered. A description of the territory and discovered finds is given.
This article is dedicated to the information of Ulrich von Rihental about the Golden Horde. The information of Ulrich von Rihental about the Tatar rulers related to the Jochid Oglans, which was supported by Idegey (Chekre, Iskander, Dervish). He also mentioned the Horde centers – Crimea, Azaq, Julat, Haji-Tarkhan, Saray, Bulgar, Khwarazm. Information on Bulgaria’s dependence on Ulus Juchi most likely reflects the German’s unclear ideas about Bulgaria’s former dependence on the Tatars.
Keywords: Ulrich von Rihenthal, Golden Horde, Idegey, Tatars, Oglans.
The article deals with the production, use and, first of all, segregation and typological classification of burins of the epipalaeolithic epoch (Mesolithic, Neolithic) of North-Western Black Sea area.
The manufacture of burins at this time had substantially reduced compared with the Upper Palaeolithic. The absolute predominance of angle burins over the groups of retouched and dihedral burins was typical. The random items similar to burins, atypical forms etc. were in some cases attributed to these groups of items. The assignable «burins on broken blade» are probably of random origin. Thus, instead of the term «burins», the use of term «items with burin spall», which has no functional load, would be more correct to refer to similar items of the epialaeolithic epoch of North-Western Black Sea region.
The article is devoted to unique finds: bronze leggings of the middle of the 4th century BC and the helmet of the early 4th century BC presented in the exposition of the Zaporizhia Museum of Local History.
Authors publish a diary of the fieldworks conducted by P.V. Kharlampovich on Mykolyna Broiaka (Neolithic site with Savran-style potsherds) in 1930. P.V. Kharlampovich disappeared in the course of Soviet repressions in January 1933. His texts remained unpublished and his finds were lost. The diary provided information to reconstruct Mykolyna Broika stratigraphy and some patterns in the spatial distribution of finds on the excavated area (84 sq. m.).
Keywords: Neolithic, Savran-style pottery, archive documents, lost collection.
The article presents the results of the rescue archaeological excavations of the barrow no. 8 from Alexandru Ioan Cuza (Cahul district, Republic of Moldova). The research revealed that the burial mound was raised above the grave no. 3 (the late stage of Yamnaya culture). The graves no. 1 and 2 were constructed in this burial mound later and belong to the late nomadic people of the Middle Ages.
The article is dedicated to the diplomatic relationships between the British Kingdom and Huguenots during the the Northern Rebellion of 1569 and their influence on the foreign policy of England and France. The author analyzes the main directions of the diplomatic relations of the Elizabethan politicians with the French Protestants, finds out the factors and circumstances of the defeat of Revolt of the Northern Earls and change the course of diplomatic relations between the countries. Also, author observes the course and results of the «third» war of 1568-1570, and concludes that the defeat of England in this military conflict had positive effects in future. It became clear for Elizabeth I that it had no sense to rely on the further assistance of Protestant forces from other states. The country could deviate from the policies that it was carrying out, and to re-evaluate its foreign-policy priorities, which contributed to a further new course of the country.
Key words: Foreign Policy, Anglo-French relations, The Northern Rebellion, The ‘’third’’ war of 1568-1570.
In Belgorod on the Dniester, which was in the first third of the 14th century under the rule of the Golden Horde, there was a bloody incident that remained in history. The Greek merchant John from Trebizond who was killed then for faith became a hero of the local Orthodox community. In the early 15th century, the shrouded in legend remains were solemnly transferred to the Moldavian capital of Suceava, where the martyr was declared the patron saint of the state and its rulers. The main organizer of the new cult was Gregory Tsamblak, who came from the Patriarch of Constantinople to settle the church conflict with Moldavia. Supported by Lord Alexander Dobry and Metropolitan Joseph, former Bishop of Belgorod – «Asprocastro», Gregory remained presbyter in «Moldovlakhia» and created the life story of John. This cooperation led to the normalization of Suceava’s relationships with the Patriarchate, as well as the consolidation of Moldavia’s power over «Parathalasia» – an autonomous seaside region centered in Belgorod.
The addition of the headdress of the population of the Balkan region in the period under consideration is determined both by the influence of the Byzantine fashion and the Byzantine craft, and by the formation of local traditions and regional jewelry schools. For the female costume several types of diadems are typical, that are known mainly from the hoards goods. As for the funeral complexes, for those materials crowns, made up of individual plates in the technique of embossing, are typical. We can see the generality of some of these plates with types of strips, produced for decorating of other objects of women’s apparel
In the Roman fortresses Cartal, the fragment of the terracotta of a Roman soldier was found. The upper part of the terracotta is preserved. There is a hole for hanging in the head. Currently, more than 15 items of such terracotta are known in the North-Western Black Sea Coast. Finds of legs with holes for hanging are also known at the other site in the eastern Roman provinces. The introduction of these statuettes is due to the presence of Roman military contingents. They existed during 2nd –first half of 3rd centuries AD. The statuettes of the soldiers are associated with the cult of Mithras. Probably, they depict adherents of the cult.
Stamps of amphorae of Rhodes are one of major chronologic indicators in the field of economic contacts. In latter days collection of the Rhodes brands from Tyras grew substantially, that had allowed to bring some additions in our ideas about trade between these two ancient centres.
The article deals with the trends in the development of cattle breeding and hunting industries of the population in ancient Tyra, Nikonion, hilforts Koshary, Nadlimayske IV and some little settlements. The study of archaeozoological collections from Nikonion and Tyra has showed differences in the composition of herds, and the significance of animal species at the farm in different historical epochs. Іn general, one can say about good-balanced models of animal husbandry of the ancient sites between the rivers Danube – Southern Bug. However, there are few local features, based, obviously, on the properties of the landscape-climatic local areas, and the characteristics of the diet of the sites researched.
Hunting as an economic activity did not have life support values. Bones of wild species of animals are represented in archeozoology complexes in small quantities. Hunted deer, beaver, hare and predators – perhaps to protect their flocks and for the sake of entertainment.
Subject of the contribution is to verify current tendencies in interpretative historical reconstruction of preliterate epoch and detection of most alluring and equivocal issues connected with implementation of environmental approach to such studies. 3 basic issues are detected and examined in this context, among them there are: problem of spatial frameworks of environmental history of preliterate epoch, issue of chronological frames of such reconstructions and personification of ‘human’ component of such environmental systems under study. Main disputable questions originated from discrepancies among representatives of different natural and humanitarian sciences are discussed and some possible solutions of these problem situations are proposed.
The article examines story of finding of the famous gravestone of Straton son of Protomachus, now located in display of Odessa archaeological museum. Authors come to the conclusion that the monument was found directly on the necropolis of Olbia.
The article considers the problems of study of ancient buildings, fragmentarily researched by archaeologists. Such objects lose their authenticity, as well as their scientific and cultural value. A complete fixation of the monument and the conservation of the dig can partially reduce the extent of loss
A large volume of archaeological material about Yamnaya culture in the Carpathian-Dniester space, collected over a long period of time, allowed the specialists to highlight the features of the funeral ritual. The construction of grave-pits had various shapes and two types of covers: wooden beams or stone slabs. In this work, distinctive aspects of this culture in its late period were identified. For the statistical analysis of the grave-pits structures, there were distinguished 306 burials, discovered in the Carpathian-Dniester space.
As a result, there can be listed grave-pits structures prominent characteristics of Yamnaya culture in its late period: rectangular grave-pits with rounded corners, where the bottom is plane and the walls are vertical; pits with or without stairs, covered on their width and length by wooden beams; remains of a mat made of plant fibers at the bottom of pit; ocher and / or chalk spots.
An overview of the fragments of the Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead in the museum and library collections of Ukraine is given in the paper. There are six damaged fragments of the Egyptian papyri in the collection of the Odessa Archaeological Museum. Four of them belong to the Book of the Dead of the “Theban redaction” (New Kingdom): OAM №№ 52974, 52678, 52681, and 52682. The fragments of the papyrus of Paneb ОАМ № 52974 are mostly interesting and preserved. The other part of this roll is located in the State Hermitage Museum (St.-Petersburg): inv. DV-1113. All OAM papyri are originated from the collection of A.A. Rafalovitch and were purchased in Egypt between 1846 and 1848. Rafalovich presented his collection to the Museum of Fine Arts and Antiquities of Novorossiyskyi (Odessa) University that became part of OAM collection in 1923. The fragments of an unpublished copy of the Hieratic Theban Book of the Dead of the Ptolemaic period are kept in the Institute of Manuscripts of the NAS of Ukraine (Fund VIII, inv. no. 565/15). The presence of the text of six and illustrations of three Chapters, as well as clarified style of design and the textual tradition are established on these fragments.
The democratic structure in Tauric Chersonesos from the second half of the 4th century BC is reliably confirmed by various sources. Antidemocratic elements come to power in Chersonesos in II BC, but for a while, as it comes from coin legends of the time. The personal names of the magistrates, who were controlling release, disappear. Practice of writing of magistrates names is resumed in the last quarter of the 2nd century BC. Sovereignty of the city, obviously, was limited during submission the cities under kings Mithridates Eupator and Pharnaces II rule. After Pharnaces’s death, freedom to Chersonesos was returned by Caesar. This event was marked by a series of coins with a slogan «free Chersonese», and the democracy was renewed in Chersonesos. Then, apparently, the tyrant by the name of Apollonidos released coins with his name, when he came to the power in the city. And overthrow of tyranny was marked by introduction of a city era.
This article is an attempt to explore a wide range of functions of sexual art in Ancient Rome, based on visual and literary sources. The author focuses on the fact that sexual images were used not only for pleasure and entertainment in the Roman world. Consequently, the following basic functions are distinguished: social, religious, humorous and “pornographic”. Works of art in architectural structures of various purposes are being considered by the author, which helps to determine their role and significance in the private and public spheres.
Artistic preferences of various layers of society from the elite to the marginal states, are also being explored. Artistic works of sexual nature were created and sold to a rather wide circle of consumers, but they were in great demand.
The author identified the features of the iconographic storyline, its location and popularization.
The place of this type of paintings in the Roman moral and ethical paradigm has also been determined, which allows better understanding of the everyday life of ancient cities.
Key words: Ancient Rome, sexual art, moral and ethical norms, functions of art, everyday life
The process of formation and development of the rite of baptism can be traced in the transformation of the chapels and baptisms architecture on the example of the monuments of Chersonesos-Kherson. In the period of formation of the Church, adults were baptized in separate chapels, which had a full immersion of the baptistery. As Christianity spreads, there was a transition to infant baptism. Small portable baptisters were used for this. The structures themselves gradually transformed into chapels-martyrs, which also carried memorial functions.
Key words: Chersoneses-Cherson, Christianity, baptistery, chapel, church.
The article presents the results of mapping the archaeological sites of the 11–14th centuries in the basin of the middle reaches of the Siversky Donets. The author comes to the conclusion that the routes of the Cumans’ migrations passed in the meridional direction, along the left and right inflows of the Donets. The Cuman encampments were mostly located away from the big trade routes, which was conditioned both by security considerations and by the inconvenience of leading a nomadic way of life on the trade routes that passed along the watersheds of large rivers.
Late Hallstatt period corresponds to the end of the grand cultural massive Basarabi-Şoldăneşti. Then follows a period of about two centuries, which ends with Getae nomination in written sources. Starting with 4th century BC, the culture fully defined, becoming unified again for the whole space of spreading. These two centuries (mid to late 7th – 5thcenturies BC) are characterized by a mixed ethno-cultural spectrum. This epoch means «unity of diversity» and «diversity of units». Post-Basarabi elements are kept, but also various cultural influences got in (eastern – Scythian, south – Hellenic, west and north-west – Celtic-Illyrian). This is a period of intense contacts and cultural transformation, when the Getae culture was actually formed.
Viacheslav G. Tsivatyi. Foreign policy and diplomatic institutionalization of early modern Europe through the eyes of a contemporary: Francesco Guicciardini on the concepts of «war» and «peace» in historical memory
The basic directions of political, diplomatic and literary working of the famous contemporary of the Renaissance – Francesco Guicciardini (1483-1540), because of his practical experience and literary and poetic heritage had not lost their relevance to this day, and his name and work closely bind Italy and Ukraine through the centuries and millennia of European history. At the turn of the Middle Ages and early modern times there is an objective process driven by the launch of the institutional design of foreign policy and diplomatic services of the leading countries in Europe. Accordingly, there is the relationship between the original concepts and priorities: «Europe», «identity», «humanity», «foreign policy» and «diplomacy», «war» and «peace» and so on.
Keywords: diplomacy, foreign policy, institutionalization, war, peace, the Renaissance, Francesco Guicciardini, Italy
This article tells about the donation of coins of the Grand Duchy of Moscow and the Grand Duchy of Tver from the Tver Museum to Odessa Museum of Antiquities in 1881. This happened at the petition of the Archbishop of Tver and Kashinsky Savva, a member of the Imperial Odessa Society of History and Antiquities. The issue is important because the origin of some Old Russian coins of Odessa Archeological Museum has been unknown.
Eisenstadt is one of the prominent scholars of the theoretical basis of history of modernization and development of civilizations. The analysis of cultures of “Axial Age” performed by Eisenstadt allowed him to introduce the concept of “Axial Age Civilizations”. The core principle of this concept can be described as: the series of revolutions in the sphere of ideas and their institutional foundations that happened during the 1st millennium B.C. have caused an irreversible impact on the history of the whole humanity and lead to the introduction of the idea of an «initial field of tension» between the transcendent and secular orders. According to Eisenstadt the “Axial Civilizations” were: Western-European, Byzantine (Orthodox Christian), Islamic, Chinese, and Indian. These civilizations carried on some of their most important cultural orientations and institutional foundations well into the Medieval and Modern eras.
The author of the article offers a logical and semantic analysis of the mentions of Pericles’ name in Thucydides’ History. Pericles is the most notable character of this work, although he is present only in two books of eight ones. The author seeks to show that all references to the name of Pericles are built by an ancient Greek historian according to a certain pattern: the increase of Pericles’ importance for Athens in the first half and his special function in the Peloponnesian War in the second half. This type of image building has much in common with the creation of characters in the classical Greek drama. Despite the fact that Thucydides is known as a strict and accurate historian, he creates important images for his History according to the laws of poetry.
The main reasons for the appearance of a historiographical myth about the high militancy of the Sauromatian and Sarmatian women are discussed in the article. One of the main reasons, it turned out to be almost complete trust of researchers to written sources. Also situation is influenced by the authority of influential researchers, who in one way or another concerned this issue in the past. In addition, it was erroneous to determine the sex of the buried funeral inventory. As a result, many male burials with weapons (as further anthropological studies showed) were classified as female. Little attention was also paid to the recruitment of weapons in women’s complexes. There was no comparison with male military burials. The women’s complex could be included in the number of “Amazon” burials, where only one arrowhead could be fixed from armament items.
The article attempts to isolate the sources where the features of Etruscan hero-eponym were clearly and exactly revealed that allow to disclose the semantics of mythological name of this character and to determine the self-name of the Etruscan ethnos. The term *rasna should be translated as populus (people) in the sense of “community, the totality of citizens, men”, and associated names of this hero “rasce, Rasenna (Rutumenna)” as something like Latin Poplicola (Publicola). Thus, the concept “rasna” and its derivates should be understood as the aggregate name of freemen, men of one or another Etruscan city-state (because state “Etruria” as a whole did not exist) rather than ethnonyms.